California, Racial Disparities, and Homelessness

What Did 41 California Continuums of Care Answer When Asked about
Racial Disparities in the Provision or Outcome of Homeless Assistance?

-68% indicated that there were racial disparities and
selected strategies to address the issues-

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) asked Continuums of Care (CoCs) to respond to the following within a subsection of the recently submitted 2018 Continuum of Care (CoC) Program application that focused on racial disparity:

  • “indicate whether the CoC assessed whether there are racial disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance;”
  • if the CoC conducted an assessment, “select from the options below (the four options are listed in Table 2) the results of the CoC’s assessment;” and
  • “select from the options below (the 11 options are listed in Table 3) the strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities.”

This brief summarizes the responses of the 41 of 43 California CoCs. Two CoCs (Lake County CoC and Colusa, Glenn, Trinity Counties CoC) did not submit a 2018 application to HUD.

This brief is similar to the one that Urban Initiatives recently released that focused on the responses of the 20 CoCs with the largest number of people experiencing homelessness in the U.S.

  • “Indicate whether the CoC assessed whether there are racial disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance”

Twenty-eight (28) or 68.3% of the 41 CoCs indicated they had assessed for racial disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance as noted in Table 1. The 13 CoCs that indicated that they did not assess for racial disparities in their provision or outcome of homeless assistance were

  • Sacramento City & County CoC;
  • Watsonville/Santa Cruz City & County CoC;
  • Roseville, Rocklin/Placer, Nevada Counties;
  • Redding/Shasta County CoC;
  • Davis, Woodland/Yolo County CoC;
  • Yuba City/Sutter County CoC;
  • El Dorado County CoC;
  • Central Sierra CoC;
  • Tehama County CoC;
  • Alpine, Inyo, Mono Counties CoC;
  • Glendale CoC;
  • Imperial County CoC; and
  • San Luis Obispo County CoC.

Table 1. Indicate whether the CoC assessed whether there are racial disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance

 

 

Continuum of Care

 

Total Homeless
Population

Indicate whether the CoC assessed whether there are racial disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance
Yes No
San Jose/Santa Clara City & County CoC 7,394
San Francisco CoC 6,858
Oakland, Berkeley/Alameda County CoC 5,629
Sacramento City & County CoC 3,665
Santa Rosa, Petaluma/Sonoma County CoC 2,835
Richmond/Contra Costa County CoC 1,607
Salinas/Monterey, San Benito Counties CoC 3,364
Marin County CoC 1,117
Watsonville/Santa Cruz City & County CoC  2,249
Mendocino County CoC 1,238
Turlock, Modesto/Stanislaus County CoC 1,661
Stockton/San Joaquin County CoC 1,542
Daly City/San Mateo County CoC 1,253
Visalia/Kings, Tulare Counties CoC 853
Fresno City & County/Madera County CoC 2,016
Roseville, Rocklin/Placer, Nevada Counties 979
Redding/Shasta County CoC 934
Napa City & County CoC 315
Vallejo/Solano County CoC 1,232
Chico, Paradise/Butte County CoC 1,195
Merced City & County CoC 454
Davis, Woodland/Yolo County CoC 459
Humboldt County CoC 759
Yuba City/Sutter County CoC 760
El Dorado County CoC 602
Amador, Calaveras, Mariposa, Tuolumne Counties CoC (Central Sierra) 367
Tehama County CoC 124
Alpine, Inyo, Mono Counties CoC* 121
Los Angeles City & County CoC 55,188
San Diego City and County CoC 9,160
Santa Ana, Anaheim/Orange County CoC 4,792
Santa Maria/Santa Barbara County CoC 1,860
Bakersfield/Kern County CoC 810
Long Beach CoC 1,863
Pasadena CoC 575
Riverside City & County CoC 2,406
San Bernardino City & County CoC 1,866
Oxnard, San Buenaventura/Ventura County CoC 1,152
Glendale CoC 168
Imperial County CoC 1,154
San Luis Obispo County CoC 1,125
Total: 28 13
  • “If the CoC conducted an assessment, select from the options below the results of the CoC’s assessment” 

Table 2 includes the selected results by the 28 CoCs that conducted an assessment, which include

  • 53.6% or 15 reported “people of different races or ethnicities are more or less likely to receive homeless assistance;”
  • 46.4% or 13 reported “people of different races or ethnicities are more or less likely to receive a positive outcome from homeless assistance;”
  • 14.3% or four reported “there are no racial or ethnic disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance;” and
  • 46.4% or 13 reported “the results are inconclusive for racial or ethnic disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance.”

Table 2. Selected results of the CoC’s assessment

Continuum of Care

 

People of different races or ethnicities are more or less likely to receive homeless assistance

 

People of different races or ethnicities are more or less likely to receive a positive outcome from homeless assistance

 

There are no racial or ethnic disparities in the provision or outcome of homeless assistance

 

The results are inconclusive for racial or ethnic disparities in the provision or outcome of
homeless assistance

San Jose/Santa Clara City & County CoC
San Francisco CoC
Oakland, Berkeley/Alameda County CoC
Santa Rosa, Petaluma/Sonoma County CoC
Richmond/Contra Costa County CoC
Salinas/Monterey, San Benito Counties CoC
Marin County CoC
Mendocino County CoC
Turlock, Modesto/Stanislaus County CoC
Stockton/San Joaquin County CoC
Daly City/San Mateo County CoC
Visalia/Kings, Tulare Counties CoC
Fresno City & County/Madera County CoC
Napa City & County CoC
Vallejo/Solano County CoC
Chico, Paradise/Butte County CoC
Merced City & County CoC
Davis, Woodland/Yolo County CoC
Los Angeles City & County CoC
San Diego City and County CoC
Santa Ana, Anaheim/Orange County CoC
Santa Maria/Santa Barbara County CoC
Bakersfield/Kern County CoC
Long Beach CoC
Pasadena CoC
Riverside City & County CoC
San Bernardino City & County CoC
Oxnard, San Buenaventura/Ventura County CoC
Total: 15 13 4 13
  • “Select from the options below the strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities”

As noted in Table 3, the top three strategies that the 28 CoCs are using include

  • Board and decision-making bodies’ representative of the population served in the CoC;
  • Expansion of outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups; and
  • Communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups.

These three strategies are highlighted in bold in the table below.

Table 3. Strategies that all CoCs are using to address any racial disparities

 

Strategy

# of CoCs that
use the strategy

# %
The CoC’s board and decision-making bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC. 25 61.0
The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decision-making bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC 4 9.8
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups 22 53.7
The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups 20 48.8
The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness 2 4.9
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector 0

0.0

The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness 5 12.2
The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity

2

4.9

The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness 2 4.9
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system 5 12.2
The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness 5 12.2
Other: 25 61.0  

             Next Steps

CoCs should consider using the strategies listed in Table 3 that are not highlighted in bold to address any racial disparities if they have not already. Less than 15% of the 28 CoCs were using each of the non-highlighted strategies listed in Table 3.

Only five (12.2%) of the 28 CoCs

  • has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness;
  • is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system; and
  • is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness.

Only four (9.8%) of the 28 CoCs

  • “has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decision-making bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC;

Only two (4.9%) of the 28 CoCs

  • is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness;
  • is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity; and
  • reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness.

None of the CoCs

  • “is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector.”

___________________________

Appendix A

Appendix A consists of Table 4, which is divided into seven sections. Each section includes the responses of four of the 28 CoCs regarding the strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities as noted in their 2018 CoC Program application.

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities

Strategies

CA-500
San Jose/
Santa Clara City & County CoC

CA-501
San Francisco CoC
CA-502
Oakland,
Berkeley/ Alameda County CoC

CA-504
Santa Rosa, Petaluma/ Sonoma County CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness
The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system
The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness
Other:

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-505
Richmond/
Contra Costa County CoC

CA-506
Salinas/ Monterey, San Benito Counties CoC
CA-507
Marin County CoC

CA-509
Mendocino County CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness
The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system
The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness
Other:

 

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-510
Turlock, Modesto/
Stanislaus County CoC

CA-511
Stockton/
San Joaquin County CoC
CA-512
Daly City/
San Mateo County CoC

CA-513
Visalia/Kings,
Tulare Counties CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness
The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system
The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness
Other:

 

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-514
Fresno City & County/
Madera County CoC

CA-517
Napa City & County CoC
CA-518
Vallejo/
Solano County CoC

CA-519
Chico, Paradise/
Butte County CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness
The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system
The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness
Other:

 

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-520
Merced City & County CoC

CA-522
Humboldt County CoC
CA-600
Los Angeles City
& County CoC

CA-601
San Diego City
and County CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness
The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness

The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system

The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness

Other:

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-602
Santa Ana, Anaheim/
Orange County CoC

CA-603
Santa Maria/
Santa Barbara County CoC
CA-604
Bakersfield/
Kern County CoC
 

CA-606
Long Beach CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC
The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness

The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness

The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity
The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness
The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system

The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness

Other:

 

Table 4. Strategies the CoC is using to address any racial disparities (con’t)

Strategies

CA-607
Pasadena CoC

CA-608
Riverside City
& County CoC
CA-609
San Bernardino City
& County CoC

CA-611
Oxnard, San Buenaventura/
Ventura County CoC

The CoC’s board and decisionmaking bodies are representative of the population served in the CoC.

The CoC has identified steps it will take to help the CoC board and decisionmaking bodies better reflect the population served in the CoC

The CoC is expanding outreach in geographic areas with higher concentrations of underrepresented groups

The CoC has communication, such as flyers, websites, or other materials, inclusive of underrepresented groups

The CoC is training staff working in the homeless services sector to better understand racism and the intersection of racism and homelessness

The CoC is establishing professional development opportunities to identify and invest in emerging leaders of different races and ethnicities in the homelessness sector
The CoC has staff, committees or other resources charged with analyzing and addressing racial disparities related to homelessness

The CoC is educating organizations, stakeholders, boards of directors for local and national non-profit organizations working on homelessness on the topic of creating greater racial and ethnic diversity

The CoC reviewed coordinated entry processes to understand their impact on people of different races and ethnicities experiencing homelessness

The CoC is collecting data to better understand the pattern of program use for people of different races and ethnicities in its homeless services system

The CoC is conducting additional research to understand the scope and needs of different races or ethnicities experiencing homelessness

Other:

 

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1 Comment

  1. Carol Bowman on July 18, 2019 at 11:04 am

    Very informative and useful. Racial Disparities is on the agenda for the Stanislaus CoC Board meeting in August.

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